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Understanding AI Bias: A Cultural Analysis Using GPT

Artificial Intelligence (AI) models like GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer) have transformed the landscape of human-machine interaction. However, as these models become increasingly integrated into various aspects of society, understanding their biases and limitations is crucial. One significant aspect of AI bias is its performance across different cultural contexts. A recent chart from the research paper "Assessing Cross-Cultural Alignment between ChatGPT and Human Societies: An Empirical Study" illustrates the correlation between GPT responses and human responses across various countries, plotted against their cultural distance from the United States. This chart provides valuable insights into how cultural differences influence AI performance.

Background of the Research

The research, conducted by Yong Cao, Li Zhou, Seolhwa Lee, Laura Cabello, Min Chen, and Daniel Hershcovich, was presented at the First Workshop on Cross-Cultural Considerations in NLP (C3NLP) in 2023. The study aimed to evaluate ChatGPT's effectiveness in cultural adaptation, given its extensive usage by users from diverse cultural backgrounds and its training on a vast multilingual corpus that includes various cultural and societal norms.

To measure cultural differences, the researchers used the Hofstede Cultural Survey, a well-known tool for cross-cultural analysis. They designed probing prompts based on this survey to assess how well ChatGPT's responses align with human responses across different cultures. Their findings revealed that ChatGPT tends to align more closely with American cultural norms and struggles to adapt to other cultural contexts, especially when prompted in English.

The Chart Explained

The chart plots two key metrics:

  1. Cultural Distance from the United States (X-axis): This metric measures how culturally different each country is from the United States. A higher value indicates greater cultural distance.

  2. Correlation between GPT and Humans (Y-axis): This measures how closely GPT responses correlate with human responses in each country. A higher value indicates a stronger correlation.

The general observation from the chart is a downward trend, suggesting that as the cultural distance from the United States increases, the correlation between GPT and human responses tends to decrease. This trend highlights potential biases in GPT's training data, which might be more representative of Western contexts, particularly the United States.

Understanding AI Bias

AI bias refers to the tendency of AI systems to perform better for certain groups of people over others, often reflecting the biases present in the data used to train them. For instance, if an AI model is predominantly trained on data from a specific cultural context, it is likely to perform better in that context compared to others. This bias can lead to discrepancies in AI performance, affecting fairness and reliability in global applications.

Examples from the Chart


  • Cultural Distance: Singapore is relatively close to the United States culturally, positioned towards the left on the X-axis.

  • Correlation: The correlation between GPT and human responses in Singapore is quite high, indicated by its position high on the Y-axis.

Interpretation: Singapore's high correlation suggests that GPT's responses align closely with human responses. This could be due to cultural similarities or high exposure to English and Western media, which aligns with GPT's training data.


  • Cultural Distance: India is moderately culturally distant from the United States, positioned towards the middle of the X-axis.

  • Correlation: The correlation in India is moderate, reflecting a fair alignment between GPT and human responses, but not as strong as in culturally closer countries.

Interpretation: India’s moderate correlation indicates that while GPT can perform reasonably well, there are still noticeable differences due to cultural and linguistic variations. This suggests a need for further localization and adaptation to better cater to the Indian context.


  • Cultural Distance: China is relatively culturally distant from the United States, placed further to the right on the X-axis.

  • Correlation: The correlation between GPT and human responses in China is lower compared to countries closer to the United States, indicated by its position lower on the Y-axis.

Interpretation: China’s lower correlation suggests that GPT's responses do not align as closely with human responses. This might be due to significant cultural differences or less exposure to Western media and contexts that align with GPT's training data. This highlights the need for careful consideration and potential customization of AI models for different cultural contexts.

Implications and the Need for Localization

The observed trend underscores the importance of addressing cultural biases in AI models. While GPT performs well in countries with cultural contexts similar to the United States, its performance diminishes in culturally distant countries. This has significant implications for the deployment of AI technologies globally.

For applications in countries with a greater cultural distance from the United States, additional localization efforts are needed to ensure the AI performs well. Localization involves adapting the AI model to consider local languages, cultural nuances, and contextual differences, ensuring that it can interact more effectively and fairly with local users.

What Does Further Localization Entail?

Localization is a multifaceted process that goes beyond simple translation. It involves adapting the AI to better fit the cultural and contextual nuances of a specific region or country. Here are some key components of further localization:

1. Language Adaptation:

  • Dialect and Slang: Incorporating local dialects, slang, and colloquial expressions to ensure the AI understands and responds appropriately.

  • Multilingual Support: Ensuring the AI can switch seamlessly between different languages commonly spoken in the region.

2. Cultural Nuances:

  • Cultural References: Including culturally relevant examples, idioms, and references that resonate with local users.

  • Social Norms and Etiquette: Adapting the AI’s interactions to align with local social norms and etiquette, such as forms of address, politeness levels, and appropriate topics of conversation.

3. Content Customization:

  • Local Contexts: Using locally relevant data and contexts to improve the relevance and accuracy of responses.

  • Regulatory Compliance: Ensuring that the AI adheres to local laws and regulations, particularly regarding data privacy and user consent.

4. User Interface and Experience:

  • Interface Design: Designing user interfaces that reflect local aesthetics and usability preferences.

  • User Experience Testing: Conducting user testing with local populations to gather feedback and make iterative improvements.

5. Bias Mitigation:

  • Diverse Training Data: Expanding training datasets to include more diverse examples from different cultural contexts.

  • Fairness Audits: Regularly auditing the AI for biases and making adjustments to reduce disparities in performance across different groups.


The chart provides a compelling visual representation of how cultural distance impacts AI performance, highlighting the inherent biases in current AI models like GPT. By understanding and addressing these biases through comprehensive localization efforts, we can work towards creating more equitable and effective AI systems that serve a diverse global audience. Using examples from Singapore, India, and China, we see the varying degrees of alignment between GPT and human responses, emphasizing the need for ongoing efforts to mitigate AI bias and enhance localization. As AI continues to evolve, ensuring its fairness and inclusivity across all cultural contexts remains a critical priority.

For more detailed information, you can access the full research paper here​ (ar5iv)​​ (ar5iv)​.

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